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WHITE PAPERS & CASE STUDIES

  • Continuous Biomanufacturing: 10 Reasons Sponsors Hesitate
    Continuous Biomanufacturing: 10 Reasons Sponsors Hesitate

    By William Whitford, Sr. Manager, HyClone Cell Culture, GE Healthcare

    The industry is abuzz with talk about continuous biomanufacturing (CB), and it virtues have been well described. Here we will look at some of the barriers or concerns perceived to limit its value to the industry. Justified or not, quite a few concerns have been expressed regarding the implementation of this new, rather disruptive technology. 

  • Efficiencies Of Natural Convection In Passive Pallet Shippers
    Efficiencies Of Natural Convection In Passive Pallet Shippers

    Bulk transportation of temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals and biologics has become a common practice due to complex global supply chains. By Iftekhar Ahmed, Ben VanderPlas, and Stu Krupnick

  • How Southwest Laboratories Delivers Time-Sensitive Drug Tests

    Providing drug abuse testing throughout the Western U.S. and beyond, Southwest Laboratories uses a reliable, time-definite FedEx Returns solution to ship 500 to 700 test samples every day, directly from their customers’ offices to the testing facility.

  • Health Care Supply Chain Requires Regulatory Expertise And Execution

    In the U.S. health care supply chain, before a medical device or drug can be shipped -- state and county licenses must be secured, FDA Quality Systems regulations must be complied with, and accreditations must be earned. The health care supply chain plays a key role in patient safety by ensuring the integrity of products from the time they are manufactured to the time they are delivered to a health care provider or patient.

More White Papers & Case Studies

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

ISCLabs: Thermal Packaging Design & Testing Services

ISCLabs: Thermal Packaging Design & Testing Services

From design and thermal testing to compliance documentation and consulting, Sonoco ThermoSafe's ISC Labs provides a full range of services to create high quality, customized packaging that protects the safety and security of your most valuable products.

Excipient Compatibility Testing

Excipient Compatibility Testing

At Patheon, we'll put the experience of thousands of projects to work when helping you to achieve the ideal dose form for your new drug product.

Contract Manufacturing and Packaging Services

Biotest Laboratories manufactures a variety of products through numerous semi-automated and manual manufacturing lines.

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About Nutrient Removal

Nutrient removal from wastewater consists of treating wastewater to remove nitrogen and phosphorus before it reenters natural waterways. High levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater cause eutrophication, a process where excess nutrients stimulate excessive plant growth such as algal blooms and cyanobacteria. The decomposition of the algae by bacteria uses up the oxygen in the water causing other organisms to die. This creates more organic matter for the bacteria to decompose. In addition, some algal blooms can produce toxins that contaminate drinking water supplies.

As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program regulates point sources, such as municipal wastewater treatment plants, that discharge pollutants as effluent into the waters of the United States. In recent years, many of the States’ environmental bodies have lowered nutrient limits to arrest eutrophication. Maryland’s effort to protect the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries is perhaps the most notable example of nutrient removal in the US. Nutrient removal continues to be a growing area of focus for wastewater treatment throughout the world.   

The removal of nitrogen and phosphorus require different nutrient removal processes. To remove nitrogen, the nitrogen is oxidized from ammonia to become nitrate through a process called nitrification. This process is then followed by denitrification where the nitrate is reduced to nitrogen gas which is released to the atmosphere and removed from the wastewater.

Nitrification is a two-step aerobic process which typically takes place in aeration tanks. Denitrification requires anoxic conditions to encourage the appropriate biological conditions to form. The activated sludge process is often used to reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas in anoxic or denitrification tanks.

Phosphorus can be removed biologically using polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) which accumulate large quantities of phosphorus within their cells and separate it from treated water. Phosphorus removal can also be achieved by chemical removal. Once removed as sludge, phosphorus may be stored in a land fill. However, many municipalities and treatment facilities are looking to resell the biosolids for use in fertilizer.